0​Arts Entertainment and Leisure (in Networking)

HL and SL

Each one of you should write something about the topics below. Each item will be worth [5 marks].

What social issues does the following bring?

Digital Video Disc (DVD)
* Intellectual Property – There are two forms of copyright issues associated with DVDs. The business of DVD ripping has begun to flourish in recent years. Although illegal, entertainment stored on DVDs is inappropriately being copied to other DVDs or to an individual’s computer for personal use. This action clearly breeches the law and consequently, the files are being dispersed illegally without consent from the manufacturers. The alternative form in which copyright issues emerge is when illegal downloads are transferred to the DVD for storage.

Intellectual Property- Movie pirates are copying Blu-ray disks with an excuse of making backup copies; they ignore copy protection on Blu-ray disk and they can be burned on CDs or shared through websites. In fact, blu-ray HD version of Avatar has been downloaded more than 200,000 times on BitTorrent.

Equality of access – Stereolithography has a very high investment and maintenance cost which could affect the equality of access of this technology. This may limit the extent to which a company or organization can use technology as a means of art since stereolithography is used to create 3D objects from CAD drawings.


Digital effects and Lighting (buildings and bridges) (SL)

Digital Radio and Television
Digital radio and television are private owned property, because you must pay with your own money in order to download or receive the radio and television videos. But when one people download, it they have a right to control the data, therefore they can copy the videos and radio files to be an open source so that many people can access it without paying.
This affects the business heavily, because they are not making profit out of it, as a result, the businesses will stop creating their company’s video and radio which means that people not able to entertain themselves with digital radio and television anymore.

Online Gambling

Nowadays gambling can be done through internet. In order to play a game, you must have your personal profile. And for some online gambling, it requires you to add personal details such as bank account number and social security number. Therefore it contains a lot of information about you, and some people tend to hack into that profile in order to gain personal information details to steal your money from your bank account. This raises an issue of security. And also as they are seeking into your personal information, looking through your details like name, address, etc that invades your privacy.
In addition, online gambling is an open network; therefore there are many different people. Some hackers tend to fake their identity by creating a fake profile in order to interact with people to gain their personal information. Therefore their fake identity raises an issue of authenticity.
As a result of invasion of privacy, people are not able to enjoy the online gambling. They are not willing to play the game through online due to its danger of losing their money; they would prefer a secure environment.

Marketing Different Products
* Security – With confidential information of individuals and companies being stored in a database, it is constantly at risk of being hacked into. Hackers could attempt to alter existing information or spread it without consent. If a company has weak security measures, it may lose and fail to attract more customers. Consequently, the business will most likely suffer in terms of finance and reputation. Therefore, it is essential that the manager of the database ensures the utmost security.

  • Privacy – Similar to the issue of security, the information of individuals stored in databases can be hacked, undermining the privacy of the users. Without privacy being ensured, the company will fail to attract and maintain the customers it has. In extreme cases, individuals can sue the company, eventually harming it, for an invasion of privacy.

      • Integrity – The information concerning a certain piece of work or music can be altered. Consequently, individuals who are seeking for information regarding that piece of information may not be presented with entirely accurate facts.


Magazines and Books
Intellectual Property –
Although online magazines and books can provide entertainment by allowing easy access, it will flag the issue of intellectual property. Online magazines and books concern intellectual property because easy and accurate duplications can be made by accessing them online. Copyrights can protect these magazines and books, but many users ignore them and share them online. As a result, many writers do not receive credit or get paid for their work. This may discourage writers to put their work on the Internet, thus preventing users to access entertainment or find a way to spend their leisure time.

Authenticity – The issue of intellectual property can lead to an issue of authenticity because a user may claim himself/herself to be the owner of the magazine or book, when in reality, they have just copied it from another website. Thus, other users would not know who you really are. If people were using the book or magazine as a source for their own work, they will have issues citing the work which can lead to legal issues.

Digital animations and actor simulations
Intellectual Property- People download digital animations from sites in Internet such as Clubbox in South Korea and Limewire. They are being downloaded illegally without any permission from the company and the downloaded animations can be made into illegal copies to be distributed not only through CDs but through websites where files can be uploaded to be shared by others in a network.

Integrity- Medical simulations are used to train medical students and provide virtual reality experience during emergency. A large database of information allows virtual simulator to assess medical knowledge in certain subjects, but if the data in the database is tampered, then the information they would get would be incorrect.


People and Machines- Flight simulations are used to give pilots or students a preparation for real flights. For full cockpit simulations, screens, witches, and levers are connected to a central computer (server). Similarly, a full motion simulator has the simulation on an elevated platform that sits on movable hydraulic legs which are controlled by the central computer. Because the machines involve motions, the design has to be safe for people to use. If something goes wrong in the connection between the machine and central computer, a person having a simulation might be in danger of getting hurt.

Online Museum (SL)

Electronic News (SL)

What solution/s can be done for the following? Please stick to the issue/s given and if your solution poses another issue please include it.

To prevent illegal downloads and copies of DVD, software such as SafeDisk can be used; it uses digital signature in optical media during replication which makes individuals difficult to copy. SafeDisk would permit to run CD from a hard drive as long as people use original DVD disk which is required for authentication. But if people use copied disc, the program will prevent validation of the signature. However, there is a potential attack on SafeDisk which involves extracting encrypted application that contain ICD file. This encrypted format ensures that original CD/DVD is being used. A person can decrypt ICD file and convert it to EXE file.
Another method includes the usage of technology called Content Scrambling System (CSS) in which Hollywood DVDs are protected. It encrypts the content of DVD and the DVD player needs a decryption key to play it, but there are still limitations since there is software that bypasses the encryption to extract the content; it would remove CSS protection while burning the DVD.


To secure intellectual property, stricter policies and standards should be imposed on the usage of the blu-ray disk. The access of the blu-ray disk should be restricted so that people do not use the back-up copies to burn it on CDs or to share it on the Internet. However, this may raise the issue of the equality of access.


Digital effects and Lighting (buildings and bridges)

Digital Radio and Television

Online Gambling
Security risks in Online Gambling can be prevented through many ways. At the most basic level, a strong password is recommended that include more than 6 letters and when creating an account, some gaming companies would require the users to include both upper and lower case as well as numbers to make the passwords stronger. Also, setting a firewall is important and it’s best not to make exception of the firewall to allow information from the game to pass through a user’s computer. By not allowing firewall, the user increases the vulnerability. Firewalls can enable designation of specific IP addresses of gamers as “trusted” which helps the user to avoid any individuals with malicious attempt.

For more security, a prepaid credit card can be used to control identity protection and prevent hackers from stealing personal information. Anonymous is the key for the users and personal information such as home addresses and bank details would not be available. This protects user’s privacy since it reduces the risk of having personal information available to hackers.

To authenticate the user, one-time password generated by mobile phone applications that works only for 30 seconds can be used. This one-time password works independently of the gaming websites, so hackers cannot still or copy it.



Marketing Different Products
The security issue can be tackled by placing firewalls and using VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) to reduce the risk of hackers accessing the databases of the companies. This will secure their finance and reputation. However, this solution does not completely eliminate the threat of hackers because there are other methods to get hold of the databases. The same solution can be applied to protect the privacy of customers and workers.